ECE Important MCQ’s

Note: Correct Answers are marked with ———— color.

1. In a classic layered hierarchy, the ___________ layer translates the logical network address is into physical address.

a. Data Link layer

b. Transport Layer

c. Network Layer

d. Session Layer

2. ________ technique makes a single fiber look like multiple virtual fibers carrying a single data stream.

a. Wavelength Division Multiplexing

b. Optical Time Division Multiplexing

c. Four-wave mixing

d. Frequency Division Multiplexing

3. SONET transmission rate for OC-48 is __________

a. 2.488 Gbps

b. 1.244 Gbps

c. 9.953 Gbps

d. 39.814 Gbps

4. A fully transparent system has _________ framing protocol.

a. Fixed according to bit-rate

b. Single

c. Arbitrary

d. Selected few

5. Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) are used at _______

a. mesh topologies

b. locations where some fraction of the wavelengths needs to be terminated locally

c. either end of a point-to-point link

d. linear or ring topologies

6. The dBm equivalent for 10 nW Power is_______

a. 50 dBm

b. -50 dBm

c. -40 dBm

d. 40 dBm

7. If a multiplexing technique take in N data streams, each of B b/s, and multiplex them into a single fiber as shown in figure, then the total aggregate rate will be ____________

a. 2NB bps

b. NB bps

c. B/N bps

d. N^2 B bps

8. Signals transmitted over much longer distances with the use of EDFAs, lead to significant increase in a type of dispersion. What type of dispersion lead to the invention of dispersion compensation techniques?

a. Chromatic

b. Intermodal

c. Polarization Mode

d. Waveguide

9. Single-Channel Optical Add Drop Multiplexers (SCOADM) can be realized using _______

a. Fiber Bragg Gratings or Dielectric thin-film filters

b. Electro-Optic Filters

c. Acousto-Optic Filters

d. Arrayed Waveguide Gratings

10. Which of the following is no the part of 2R electronic regeneration techniques?

a. Regeneration

b. Reshaping

c. Retiming

d. Transparency

11. The range 1530-1565 nm is dedicated to which of the following band_________

a. Long

b. Extended

c. Conventional

d. Short

12. The silica-based optical fiber has three low-loss windows in the 0.8, 1.3, and 1.55 μm infrared wavelength bands. In the 1.3 μm band, the lowest loss is around ________ dB/km.

a. 0.25

b. 0.50

c. 0.20

d. 0.15

13. Why N−1 outputs are referred to as colourless in ROADM that is implemented using a 1×N Wavelength Selective Switch(WSS)?

a. because they cannot carry any wavelength

b. because they can add/drop any wavelength

c. because they can carry any wavelength

d. because they are able to block desired wavelength

14.Web-Browsing is an example of ___________switching network.

a. None of all

b. Burst Switching

c. Circuit Switching

d. Packet Switching

15. Multimode fibrers have large compared to the operating wavelength of the light signal. The multimode core diameter range between _________.

a. 60 to 90 μm

b. 50 to 85 μm

c. 90 to 120 μm

d. 8 to 10 μm

16. Switch core and Port Complex are the types of _________

a. OXCs

b. OLTs

c. Optical Amplifiers

d. OADMs

17. Which of the following is no the characteristics of Optical Core OXC?

a. scalable in capacity

b. transparent

c. switching signals at granularities of STS-1 or STS-48

d. bit rate independent

18. Which of the following does Wavelength Plane Approach need not to take into account?

a. Number of terminations

b. The number of fibers

c. Fraction of add/drop traffic

d. Cladding material

19. In a traffic matrix, ‘t’ units of traffic are to be routed from one IP router to all other IP routers in the network. ‘N’ is the number of nodes in the network and assuming the traffic to be uniform, _________ units of traffic are to be routed between every pair of IP router.

a. t/N

b. t*(N- 1)

c. t/(N- 1)

d. tN

20. Following are the important parts of Routing and Wavelength Assignment technique.

a. Nodes, Lightpath

b. Access station, Lightpath

c. None of the above

d. Access station, Nodes, Lightpath

21. The following is the formula for evaluating ____________ in RWA algorithm.

a. Min-Product (MP)

b. Max-Sum (M Σ)

c. Least-Used (LU)

d. Least-Loaded (LL)

22. Which type of routing is Least-congested-path (LCP) routing?

a. Fault-Tolerant Routing

b. Adaptive Routing

c. Fixed Routing

d. Fixed-Alternate Routing

23. DRCL stands for _______

a. Discrete Relative Capacity Loss

b. Distributed Relative Capacity Loss

c. Discrete Relative Connection Loss

d. Distributed Relative Connection Loss

24. In ________ statistical dimensioning model, the network is assumed to be in equilibrium such that the rate of arrival and the rate of termination of light paths are equal.

a. First-passage model


c. Both a and b

d. Blocking model

25. Backbone network operators currently provide high-capacity OC-192 links. What is the equivalent SONET transmission rate?

a. 9.953 Gbps

b. 2.488 Gbps

c. 39.814 Gbps

d. 1.244 Gbps

26. The highly asymmetric devices used to branch off a small portion of the signal power for monitoring purposes in PON technologies is ___________

a. tap couplers

b. combiners

c. cross-connects

d. splitters

27. In Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) Algorithms in EPON, Tlocal denote the local time, and Tprocessing denote the processing time, scheduling time by a variable Tschedule, and guard time interval is Tguard, then start time Tstart can be updated as _______

a. Tstart =Tlocal + Tschedule

b. Tstart = Tschedule + Tguard

c. Tstart =Tlocal + Tprocessing

d. Tstart =Tlocal + Tguard

28. Element Management System (EMS) is usually connected to one or more of the network elements and communicates with the other network elements in the network using a _______

a. Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)

b. Operations Support System (OSS)

c. Signaling Channel

d. Data Communication Network (DCN)

29. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application protocol that runs over a standard Internet Protocol stack. The information model in SNMP is called a _________

a. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol stack

b. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)

c. Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP)

d. Management Information Base (MIB)

30. In Multivendor Interoperability, the interface between the transponders could be either _________.


b. Wavelength Routing Network

c. SDH

d. IP

31. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has identified layers within the optical layer. What is the name of layer shown in the following model?

a. Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)

b. Optical Transmission Section (OTS)

c. Optical Multiplex Section (OMS)

d. Optical Channel (OCh) layer

31. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has identified layers within the optical layer. What is the name of layer shown in the following model?

Which of the following is not the goal of performance and fault management?

a. detecting problems in the network

b. declare a loss-of-signal (LOS) alarm

c. identify, verify, and manage the connectivity of a light path

d. restoring service in the event of failures

32. Which of the following is not the goal of performance and fault management?

a. detecting problems in the network

b. declare a loss-of-signal (LOS) alarm

c. identify, verify, and manage the connectivity of a light path

d. restoring service in the event of failures

33. _________ management is the function of taking the client signals and converting them to a form that can be used inside the optical layer.

a. None of the above

b. Connection Management

c. Equipment Management

d. Adaption Management

34. Following figure shown is Open Fiber Control Protocol. In the DISCONNECT state, A transmits a pulse of duration  every T second. B does the same. If A detects light while it is transmitting a pulse, it enters the STOP state and is called the master _________.

a. Stop state i.e. Slave

b. Stop state i.e. Master

c. Reconnect State

d. Active state

35. Which of the following is not the cause of network failure?

a. catastrophic events such as fires, flooding, or earthquakes

b. network automatically rerouting traffic

c. failure of active components inside network equipment

d. by human error, such as a backhoe cutting through a fiber cable

36. Give the full form of APS protocol _________.

a. Alternate Path Switching

b. Automatic Path Switching

c. Alternate Protection Switching

d. Automatic Protection Switching

37. Which protection-type does unidirectional path-switched ring (UPSR) utilizes?

a. Shared

b. Dedicated

c. Revertive

d. Non-Revertive

38. OMS-SPRing stands for ________

a. Shared Point-to-point Ring

b. SONET Protection Ring

c. Shared Protection Ring

d. SONET Point-to-point Ring

39. Which of the following factor does not affect the viability and success of FSO?

a. Operating in atmospheric windows in the IR spectral range

b. Line of sight

c. Transmission of IR signal through the atmosphere

d. Selecting the transmission wavelength

40. Which of the following are the challenges for FSO market?

a. protocol independent model function

b. capital requirements for a buildout Reliable equipment

c. Reliability of FSO versus competing alternatives

d. balance of ecosystems and technology

41. Non-linear optical effects are the major technical issue in _______

a. Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM)

b. Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (OWDM)

c. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)

d. Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM)

42. Which of the following is not a remedy of Multiple Access Interface (MAI)?

a. An Intelligent design of the codeword sequence

b. New degree of freedom in using multiple wavelength

c. Construction of 2-D or 3-D codes

d. Close observation on effect of number of Time chips

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