This set of Data Structures & Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Pairing Heap”.

**1. What is the basic operation performed in a pairing heap?****A) merge**

B) deletion

C) insertion

D) swapping

Explanation: Merging is the most fundamental operation in a pairing heap. Merging is also used for insertion.

**2. If there are c children of the root, how many calls to the merge procedure is required to reassemble the heap?**

A) c

B) c+1**C) c-1**

D) 1

Explanation: To reassemble the pairing heap, c-1 merges are needed if the root has c children.

**3. Which of the following methods is the best choice for complex applications?**

A) binary heap

B) d-heap

C) treap**D) pairing heap**

Explanation: Since it is straightforward and better than the others, the pairing heap is the best option for complex applications.

**4. Pairing heaps time complexity was inspired by that of?****A) splay tree**

B) treap

C) red-black tree

D) avl tree

Explanation: The insertion, deletion, and search time complexity of pairing heaps was inspired by splay trees at first.

**5. The roots of the elements of the subtrees are smaller than the root of the heap.**

A) True**B) False**

Explanation: All the root elements of the subtrees in the list must not be smaller than the heap’s root element, according to the heap ordering property.

**6. The amortized time efficiency for performing deletion of a minimum element is?**

A) O(N)**B) O(log N)**

C) O(N^{2})

D) O(M log N)

Explanation: Mathematically, the amortised time efficiency for deleting a minimum element is found to be O. (log N).

**7. Out of the following given options, which is the fastest algorithm?****A) fibonacci heap**

B) pairing heap

C) d-ary heap

D) binary heap

Explanation: Although the pairing heap is a good algorithm, it is not as good as the Fibonacci heap. Furthermore, pairing heap is faster than both d-ary and binary heaps.

**8. What is the run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm?****A) O(N)**

B) O(log N)

C) O(N^{2})

D) O(M log N)

Explanation: In a pairing heap, the run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm is found to be O. (N).

**9. What is the reason for the efficiency of a pairing heap?****A) simplicity**

B) time-efficient

C) space-efficient

D) advanced

Explanation: A pairing heap’s simplicity is due to the fact that it is simpler and outperforms other heap structures.

**10. How is a pairing heap represented?**

A) binary tree

B) fibonacci tree**C) heap ordered tree**

D) treap

Explanation: The analysis of a pairing heap is free, and it is described as a heap-ordered tree.

**11. The actual pairing heap implementation uses the right child and left child representation.**

A) true**B) false**

Explanation: Due to the heap order property, the actual pairing heap implementation uses a left child and right sibling representation.

**12. Which node contains a pointer to its parent?**

A) root node

B) right most child**C) left most child**

D) left sibling

Explanation: A pointer to its parent is present in a leftmost node; otherwise, the node is a right sibling.

**13. Which of the heaps is implemented by the following figure?**

A) fibonacci heaps**B) pairing heap**

C) skew heap

D) leftist heap

Explanation: Since it has left children and right siblings, the above figure represents a pairing heap.

In 1986, Michael Fredman, Robert Sedgewick, Daniel Sleator, and Robert Tarjan proposed a pairing heap, which is a type of heap data structure with a relatively simple implementation and excellent functional amortised efficiency. Pairing heaps are multiway tree structures that are heap-ordered and can be compared to Fibonacci heaps. They are a “robust alternative” for implementing algorithms like Prim’s MST algorithm, and they support the operations mentioned below.