Pairing Heap Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs)

This set of Data Structures & Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Pairing Heap”.

1. What is the basic operation performed in a pairing heap?
A) merge
B) deletion
C) insertion
D) swapping

Explanation: Merging is the most fundamental operation in a pairing heap. Merging is also used for insertion.

2. If there are c children of the root, how many calls to the merge procedure is required to reassemble the heap?
A) c
B) c+1
C) c-1
D) 1

Explanation: To reassemble the pairing heap, c-1 merges are needed if the root has c children.

3. Which of the following methods is the best choice for complex applications?
A) binary heap
B) d-heap
C) treap
D) pairing heap

Explanation: Since it is straightforward and better than the others, the pairing heap is the best option for complex applications.

4. Pairing heaps time complexity was inspired by that of?
A) splay tree
B) treap
C) red-black tree
D) avl tree

Explanation: The insertion, deletion, and search time complexity of pairing heaps was inspired by splay trees at first.

5. The roots of the elements of the subtrees are smaller than the root of the heap.
A) True
B) False

Explanation: All the root elements of the subtrees in the list must not be smaller than the heap’s root element, according to the heap ordering property.

6. The amortized time efficiency for performing deletion of a minimum element is?
A) O(N)
B) O(log N)
C) O(N2)
D) O(M log N)

Explanation: Mathematically, the amortised time efficiency for deleting a minimum element is found to be O. (log N).

7. Out of the following given options, which is the fastest algorithm?
A) fibonacci heap
B) pairing heap
C) d-ary heap
D) binary heap

Explanation: Although the pairing heap is a good algorithm, it is not as good as the Fibonacci heap. Furthermore, pairing heap is faster than both d-ary and binary heaps.

8. What is the run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm?
A) O(N)
B) O(log N)
C) O(N2)
D) O(M log N)

Explanation: In a pairing heap, the run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm is found to be O. (N).

9. What is the reason for the efficiency of a pairing heap?
A) simplicity
B) time-efficient
C) space-efficient

Explanation: A pairing heap’s simplicity is due to the fact that it is simpler and outperforms other heap structures.

10. How is a pairing heap represented?
A) binary tree
B) fibonacci tree
C) heap ordered tree
D) treap

Explanation: The analysis of a pairing heap is free, and it is described as a heap-ordered tree.

11. The actual pairing heap implementation uses the right child and left child representation.
A) true
B) false

Explanation: Due to the heap order property, the actual pairing heap implementation uses a left child and right sibling representation.

12. Which node contains a pointer to its parent?
A) root node
B) right most child
C) left most child
D) left sibling

Explanation: A pointer to its parent is present in a leftmost node; otherwise, the node is a right sibling.

13. Which of the heaps is implemented by the following figure?

A) fibonacci heaps
B) pairing heap
C) skew heap
D) leftist heap

Explanation: Since it has left children and right siblings, the above figure represents a pairing heap.

In 1986, Michael Fredman, Robert Sedgewick, Daniel Sleator, and Robert Tarjan proposed a pairing heap, which is a type of heap data structure with a relatively simple implementation and excellent functional amortised efficiency. Pairing heaps are multiway tree structures that are heap-ordered and can be compared to Fibonacci heaps. They are a “robust alternative” for implementing algorithms like Prim’s MST algorithm, and they support the operations mentioned below.